Saturday 27 February 2010

TAG conversion

While I wait for the Crusader French SYW figures to arrive (sufficient to complete twelve battalions) I've been thinking ahead to the next two cavalry units I need for the Polish Renaissance army. They are to be 'General Levy' and TAG don't actually do a figure. What I was looking for was a lance-carrying unarmoured general cavalryman so I asked TAG to send me a sample of their pack REN 07 to see how easy it would be to convert. These are minor conversions - just snipping off the sword, and drilling through the hand to take a lance - but even so I managed to make a pig's ear of the sample I'm showing you. Whilst bending the arm down with a small pair of pliers I managed to snap the hand off. Still, I have a pile of plastic bits and pieces (from other projects - Lesson here- never throw anything away!) and voila, a plastic hand was glued into place with the lance. I'm showing also two pictures of the packs I plan to convert to make two 12 figure units.

Monday 22 February 2010

Jan of Tarnow’s Pancerni Banner

These guys look rather mean, and that was, in no way, intentional. So this Polish army for the Potop (Deluge) progresses and 4 out of 12 units are done. I'll try in March to finish the cavalry for the right wing - two units of 'General Levy'.

Wednesday 17 February 2010

Romans on eBay

If you are interested, I have six lots of painted EI Romans on ebay

(item: : 110494166087)

as well as a couple of lots of left over ACW figures.

A new Pancerni regiment will be painted and posted here over the weekend.

Saturday 6 February 2010


I’m listing here the OOB for my 25mm French army of the WAS/SYW. Firstly, I want to say a word about general’s names and ranks. As we are looking at warfare covering a period of almost twenty-five years (WAS 1740-48 SYW 1754-63), names of generals changed as did their ranks. I have not taken a particular year and rated all the generals to that year by name and rank; rather I have taken names of generals active in either war and given them a rank that they held at some stage. Furthermore French ranks of generals are partly unfamiliar to English readers: Brigadiers, Marechals de camp, Lieutenant Generals, Generals and Marechals (in order of seniority). Many OOBs from other sources often show a division or column commanded by a Lieutenant General, assisted by a number of Marechals de camp, who, in turn, are assisted by a number of Brigadiers, which does not help greatly as one does not know quite who commanded what at a brigade level. I have therefore allocated brigades to both Brigadiers and Marechals de camp on an entirely arbitrary basis. Indeed their final rank will largely depend on what sort of officer figure I give them as I intend painting Brigadiers (whose uniform is unknown to me) in grey/white Colonel’s uniforms and Marechals de camp in the blue uniform that was attributed to this rank.

Figures in BOLD have been painted; the vast bulk of the army still remains to be done.

C-in-C Prince Soubise or Marshal Saxe

Advance Guard: Lt-General Rougê
Brigade: Marechal de camp comte de Chabot
Arquebesiers de Grassin (24)
2x4pdr Battery
Brigade: Brigadier Turpin
Hussars Bercheny(12)
Hussars Turpin(12)

1st Column: Lt-General chevalier de Nicholai
Brigade: Marechal de camp marquis de Voyer
25th Limousin 1st BTN(16)
25th Limousin 2nd BTN(16)
86th La Marche-Prince (16)
124th Royal-Lorraine*(16)
4x4pdr Battery

Brigade: Brigadier comte de Vence
18th Touraine 1st BTN (16)
18th Touraine 2nd BTN (16)
31st Artois 1st BTN (16)
31st Artois 2nd BTN (16)
6 x6pdr Battery

Brigade: Marechal de camp marquis de Dreux
35th La Fere 1st BTN(16)
35th La Fere 2nd BTN(16)
78th Bigorre BTN(16)
82nd Foix BTN(16)

2nd Column:Lt-General comte de St.Germain
Brigade: Brigadier de Meaupeau
56th Medoc 1st BTN(16)
56th Medoc 2nd BTN(16)
59th Royal Comtois 1st BTN(16)
59th Royal Comtois 2nd BTN(16)
4x4pdr Battery

Brigade: Marechal de camp de Planta
55th Waldner Swiss 1st BTN(16)
55th Waldner Swiss 2nd BTN(16)
63rd de la Planta Swiss 1st BTN(16)
63rd de la Planta Swiss 2nd BTN(16)
6x6pdr Battery

Brigade: Marechal de camp de Crillon
108th Bergh German BTN(16)
114th St.Germain German BTN(16)
115th La Dauphine German BTN(16)
116th Royal Pologne BTN (16)

3rd Column: Lt-General marquis de St.Pern
Brigade: Marechal de camp vicompte de Narbonne
Cambis, Grenadiers royaux 1st BTN(16)
Cambis, Grenadiers royaux 2nd BTN(16)
L'Espinasse, Grenadiers royaux 1st BTN (16)
L'Espinasse, Grenadiers royaux 2nd BTN (16)
4x4pdr Battery

Brigade: Brigadier marquis de Roquepine
40th Grenadiers de France 1st BTN (18)
40th Grenadiers de France 2nd BTN (18)
40th Grenadiers de France 3rd BTN (18)
40th Grenadiers de France 4th BTN (18)
6 x6pdr Battery

4th Column: Lt-General Louis Joseph de Bourbon, prince de Condé
Brigade: Brigadier marquis de Conflans
Garde Francaise 2nd BTN (18)
Garde Francaise 3rd BTN (18)

Garde Swiss 1st BTN(18)
Garde Swiss 2nd BTN(18)
6x12pdr Battery

Brigade: Marechal de camp chevalier de Grollier
92nd Bulkeley Irish BTN(16)
93rd Clare Irish BTN(16)

94th Dillon Irish BTN(16)
98th Rooth Irish BTN(16)

* Royal Lorraine in WAS wore yellow coats with black facings and this is the WAS uniform.

Right Wing Cavalry: Lt-General duc de Sourches
Brigade: Brigadier chevalier de Muy
Cuirassiers du Roi, (12)
La Reine, (12)
Royal-Pologne, (12)
Brigade: Marechal de camp Puységur
Orléans (12)
Poly Saint-Thiébault (12)
Penthièvre (12)
Brigade: Marechal de camp de Rougrave
Condé (12)
Clermont Prince (12)
Wurtemberg (12)

Left Wing Cavalry: Lt-General marquis de Poyanne
Brigade: Brigadier de camp de Besons
Name to be decided (12)
Name to be decided (12)
Name to be decided (12)
Brigade: Marechal de camp chevalier de Montbarrey
Name to be decided (12)
Name to be decided (12)
Name to be decided (12)
Brigade: Marechal de camp M. de Bellefonds
Dragoons (16)
Dragoons (16)

Reserve Cavalry: Lt-General duc de Fitzjames
Brigade: Marechal de camp duc de Chevreuse
1st squadron Gendarmes Écossais (3)
Gendarmes de Bourgogne (3)
2nd squadron Gendarmes Anglais (3)
Chevau-légers de Bourgogne (3)
3rd squadron Gendarmes Bourguignons (3)
Gendarmes d'Aquitaine (3)
4th squadron Gendarmes de Flandres (3)
Chevau-légers d'Aquitaine (3)

Brigade: Marechal de camp comte de Beaupréau
Mousquetaires gris (3)
Mousquetaires noirs (3)
Chevau-légers du Roi (3)
Gendarmes de la Garde (3)

Infantry:680 (22,440) Artillery: 14 x 4pdrs
Cavalry:272 (8,976) 24 Heavies


A word about battalion guns: I have removed them from individual battalions (as per an interesting discussion on TMP) and grouped them into field batteries.

Most of the Infantry flags are done so please email me if you would like to see them. They certainly are colourful!

Lastly, to show you just how top heavy the French army was in generals here is a listing of generals serving with Marechal de Saxe in 1745.

27 lieutenants généraux avec garde (chaque garde étant composée d'une compagnie de 20 gardes = Lt.Generals each with a personal escort of guards numbering 20)
51 lieutenants généraux sans garde (= without guards),
56 maréchaux de camp,
23 brigadiers d'infanterie,
43 brigadiers de cavalerie,
plus 124 aides de camps.

Monday 1 February 2010

OOB WAS/SYW Allied Pragmatic Army

Focusing as I currently am on my WAS/SYW armies, I thought it time to show you an OOB for both sides and to explain, even if briefly, how one can use one army, in this case the British Allies, for both wars with only minor change so long as, and this is the key, one is not a fussy purist.

I'll post the French army later this week (and that is a great deal more complicated) and to you Eastern Renaissance guys, I'll promise at least one new unit a month. It was two, I know I promised, but the poll clearly showed another winner and time and money constrains against more than one new unit a month - with the focus being on the Poles for the moment.

C-in-C Prinz Ferdinand or Duke of Cumberland

Advance Guard: Colonel Luckner(H)
Hessian Jaegers (9)
Brunswick Jaegers (9)
Freytag Jaegers (9)
Brunswick Hussars von Roth (8)
Hanoverian Luckner’s Hussars (16)
Battalion gun

1st Column: Lt-General Prinz von Isenburg-Budingen (He)
Brigade: Maj-General Waldegrave
5th Foot (Bentinck)(18)
6th Foot (Guise)(18)
37th Foot (Stewart)(18)
Battalion gun
Brigade: Maj-General Griffin
8th Foot (King’s)(18)
20th Foot (Kingsley)(18)
43rd Foot (Kennedy)(18)
Battalion gun
Brigade: Maj-General Scheele (H)
Hanoverian Guard 1 battalion (20)
Hanoverian Guard 2 battalion (20)
Battalion gun
Brigade: Major Lennox
6x6pdr Light British Battery

2nd Column: Lt-General Freiherr von Spörcken (H)
Brigade: Maj-General von Wangenheim (H)
von Reden Hanoverian Reg 3A (20)
von Post Hanoverian Reg 10A (20)
de la Chevallerie Hanoverian 11B (20)
Battalion gun
Brigade: Maj-General George Ludwig von Zastrow (Bru)
Brunswick von Mansberg 1st Btn (18)
Brunswick von Mansberg 2nd Btn (18)
Brunswick Prinz Friedrich 1st Btn (18)
Brunswick Prinz Friedrich 2nd Btn (18)
Battalion gun
Brigade: Maj-General Bischhausen (He)
Hessian Mansbach 1st Btn (12)
Hessian Mansbach 2nd Btn (12)
Hessian Gilsa 1st Btn (12)
Hessian Gilsa 2nd Btn (12)
Battalion gun
Brigade: Major Haase (H)
6x12pdr Hanoverian Battery

3rd Column: Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Erbprinz of Brunswick
Brigade: Maj-General von Post(H)
von Scheither Hanoverian Reg 1A (20)
von Schulenburg Hanoverian Reg 3B (20)
von Bock Hanoverian Reg 4A (20)
Battalion gun
Brigade: Major-General von Mansberg (Bru)
British Grenadier Btn (18)
Hanoverian Grenadier Btn (16)
Hessian Mansbach/Gilsa Grenadier (12)
Hessian Guards/Erbprinz Grenadier (12)
Brunswick Conv.Gren.von Redecken (16)
Battalion gun (Brunswick)
Brigade: Maj-General von Tolle (He)
4th Hessian Guards,. 1st Btn (12)
4th Hessian Guards, 2nd Btn (12)
Hessian Malsburg 1st Btn (12)
Hessian Malsburg 2nd Btn (12)
Battalion gun

Brigade: Major Gohr (He)
6x6pdr Hessian Battery

(Right)Column Cavalry General: Lt Gen Marquis of Granby
Brigade: Major-General Honnywood
3rd DragoonGuards,(12)
5th Dragoons (Royal Irish)(12)
6th Dragoons (Inniskilling)(8)
Brigade: MG von Breidenbach (H)(dragoons)
Hanoverian Leib-Regiment Horse (12)
Hanoverian von Grothaus Horse (12)
Hanoverian Breidenbach Dragoons (16)
Brigade: MG von Wolff (He)
Miltitz (Oheim)Hessian Horse (12)
Prinz Wilhelm Hessian Horse (12)
Prinz Friedrich Hessian Dragoons (16)

(Left) Column Cavalry General: Lt.General Oheim (He)
Brigade: MG von Grothaus (H)
Hanoverian Garde du Corps (6)
Hanoverian Grenadier a Cheval (6)
Hanoverian Heisse Horse (12)
Hanoverian Bremer Sen. Horse (12)
Brigade: MG von Reden (H)
Hanoverian Walthausen Horse (12)
Hessian Horse Leib (12)
Hanoverian Veltheim Dragoons (16)
Brigade: MG von Hanstein(He)
Hessian Dragoons Leib (16)
Hanoverian Bock Dragoons (16)

Artillery: 20 battalion guns plus 18 heavy guns =38
Infantry: 537 figs= 17,721
Cavalry: 244 figs= 8,052
Army of 24,981

NOTE: Items marked in BOLD have yet to be painted. All others are finished.

The first thing to note, is the choice of two commanders. Cumberland will command in the WAS and Ferdinand in the SYW. The French will have Saxe in the WAS and Soubise in the SYW. This will nicely pit an 'average/poor' commander against a more celebrated and efficient opponent.

Secondly, it all revolves around the rules I will use which are Carnage and Glory Computer rules. This will allow me to put infantry into three or four ranks as appropriate for each nationality or campaign. The Hanoverians, for example, used 4 ranks throughout the WAS and in the early part of the SYW. The basing system is mine which is fine as both sides will be based in the same way. Have a look at Nigel Marsh's website at

Thirdly, the role of the Hessians and Brunswickers in the WAS was very limited (most Hessians were sent to England to assist against the wee Bonnie Prince) and OOBs of the WAS have the Dutch in their place. The Dutch are neutral in the SYW and their place is taken by expanded Hessian and Brunswick armies. This is an instance where the purist (normally me, but not in this instance) has to suspend reality a smidgeon. Who knows, I may do some Dutch some day as Eureka have a nice range.

Fourthly, names of units and names/ranks of generals change throughout both wars. Some units existed in the WAS and not in the SYW and vice-versa. I don’t think it matters terribly although some units (mostly on the French side) may well feature on the battlefield only within their correct context.

The French OOB will appear later on this week. It features, amongst other things, interchangeable elite infantry divisions, depending on which war one is fighting. The SYW will have an elite Grenadier division while the WAS will have an elite guards and Irish division. They may even fight together one day, who knows?

In Search Of The French Grenadiers

The poll is now closed and the SYW/WAS project carried the day with 48% of the votes cast, with the eastern Renaissance holding a respectable second place with 24%. So expect to see, quite soon, a return to the SYW and a serious start on the French army. To that end I've just placed an order for the 192 figures I will need to complete a French division or column.

On the subject of the French, I'm reprinting here a good article by David Cookman with the permission of Jim Purky.

"In Search Of The French Grenadiers During the Seven Years War
By David Cookman

For some time I have been raising a Seven Years War French wargame army. In the course of this I have been finding out about the structure and makeup of the French forces, one aspect which intrigued me was an elusive formation called the royal grenadiers, or the Grenadiers Royaux. Only a few of my sources even mentioned this formation and even here, the references were fleeting. I tried a number of avenues to discover more information, but continually drew a blank. Then, with the help of a French work colleague, Robert Cholay, I wrote to the Musee de l'Armee in Paris and a couple of months later, I received a very complete and interesting reply from M. Stephane Bourdin. I enclose the translation of this reply below with some additional thoughts on grenadiers in the French army.

The Translation
In 1667 each company of infantry had attached a group of four men armed with hand grenades, and from 1671, each infantry battalion included a company of grenadiers. Their equipment included a sabre, a hatchet and a grenade pouch (containing between 12 and 15 grenades). With the introduction of the first regulation musket (complete with bayonet), however, the usage of the grenade declined.

During the War of the Polish Succession there was one company of grenadiers per battalion, but these were not kept after the peace. A royal ordonnance of the 15th September 1745 created 103 battalions of provincial militia; each battalion was composed of 8 companies of fusiliers (each of 70 men) and one company of 50 grenadiers, giving a total of 610 men, serving for six years.

The ordonnance of the 10th of April 1745 detached the companies of grenadiers from the battalions of militia and formed seven regiments (one battalion each) of grenadiers royaux (royal grenadiers), named after their colonels. An ordonnance of 28th January 1746 created in each militia battalion a new company of grenadiers - called the grenadiers postiches (false grenadiers) from whom the grenadiers royaux were recruited. On campaign the grenadiers postiches were attached to the regiments of the grenadiers royaux, which were two battalions strong.

An ordonnance of the 15th of February 1748 caused the creation of two additional regiments of grenadiers. All nine regiments were disbanded on the 6th of August 1748 to be reconstituted, this time at a strength of 11 regiments, on the 1st of March 1750. During the Seven Years War, the grenadiers postiches fought in the ranks of the grenadiers royaux and the regiments were disbanded as were the grenadiers royaux on the 30th September 1789.

The regiment of the grenadiers de France, which should not be confused with the regiments of the grenadiers royaux, had a different origin: they were not raised from the militia, but from the line infantry. In 1745 the ministry of d'Argenson imposed a minimum of two battalions to a regiment which resulted in the suppression of 18 regiments of infantry ( a regiment was formed of 12 companies of fusiliers and 1 company of grenadiers). The grenadier companies of the 18 disbanded regiments were formed into a special corps: the regiment of the grenadiers de France, commanded by a lieutenant-general and divided into four brigades of 12 companies each (1749).

At the same time, in the regiments of infantry which survived, a company of grenadiers per battalion was maintained.

The regiment of the grenadiers de France comprised in 1749: 2,160 grenadiers, 16 colonels and 8 lieutenant-colonels. It was controlled by an inspector-commandant: the marquis de Saint-Pern. For some time considered only as parade troops, the regiment of the grenadiers de France illustrated its bravery during the Seven Years War. An ordonnance of the 4th of August 1771 dissolved the grenadiers de France who were distributed amongst the 11 regiments of the grenadiers royaux or into the various provincial regiments.

Paralleling the infantry grenadiers, Louis XIV, in 1676, created a company of horse grenadiers (grenadiers a cheval) recruited from the cavalry and armed with a musket, pistol and sword. This company was attached to the Maison du Roi (king's household). Their motto was "Undique terror, undique lethum". After participating in the battles of Ramillies, Oudenarde (1708), Malplaquet (1709), Fontenoy (1745) and the Seven Years War, the company was disbanded on the 15th of December 1775.

Grenadiers During the Seven Years War
During the Seven Years War the grenadiers de France and the grenadiers royaux made themselves famous from 1757. The two distinct corps of troops marched together in a single formation. Four regiments of grenadiers royaux (each 2 battalions strong) [(Aulan - later to become Le Camus in 1759), Bergeret ( which became Narbonne in 1759), Modene and Chantilly] and the four battalions of the grenadiers de France formed a corps of 12 battalions of grenadiers, placed trom 1757 to 1760 under the command of the marquis de Saint-Pern. As for the regiment of Solar, as often as not it acted as escort to the geographical staff carrying out reconnaissance.

At the battle of Hastenbeck the grenadiers de France were placed on the right wing. The forces of Saint-Pern participated in the march on the Lower Elbe, the capitulation of Klosterhaven and the occupation of Hanover and Brunswick.
In 1758, during which year the two battalions of the Solar regiment were made prisoner in Minden (14th March), the grenadiers royaux, grenadiers de France, and the carabiniers passed Lippe on the 29th of September and pillaged the camp of Borck, under the command of Saint-Pern.

In 1759 the corps of grenadiers was integrated into the Army of the Lower Rhine, under the command of the marquis de Contades. On the 1st of August 1759 the grenadiers de France attacked in Ihe first line at Todtenhausen (Battle of Minden), being driven back by Brunswick troops and enduring a three hour cannonade which caused heavy casualties. This French defeat was followed by the evacuation of Westphalia and Hesse. On the 17th of August, the second battalion of the regiment Narbonne surrendered after being isolated and attacked at Nienbourg.

In 1760 the grenadiers participated in the occupation of the south of Hanover and Hesse. Twelve companies of grenadiers royaux, commanded by the viscount of Narbonne, were beseiged by 12,000 of the enemy in Fritzlar on the 12th of February 1761. Narbonne only capitulated on the l5th of February and Louis XV accorded him the right, henceforth, to call himself the viscount de Narbonne-Fritzlar. In 1761 the regiments of Cambis, La Tresne, Ailly, L'Espinasse, Longaunay and Puysegur (ex-Modene) served under the orders of the Duc de Broglie. The grenadiers of de Broglie's army participated in the battle of Vellinghausen, where they made up the left column and captured the chateau of Nadel. Then, on the 16th of July 1761 the grenadiers de France were charged with covering the retreat of the duke.

During the campaign of 1762, the regiments of Le Camus, Narbonne, La Roche-Lambert (ex-Puysegur), Argentre (ex Chantilly) and l'Espinasse were grouped in the army of Soubise and d'Estrees, whereas the regiments of Cambis and Ailly were integrated into the Army of the Lower Rhine under the command of the prince de Conde. The grenadiers of Soubise fought at Wilhelmstadt (24th June 1762). Conde gave battle at Johannisberg (30th August) and was aided by Stainville, who arrived at the head of the four battalions of the grenadiers de France, six battalions of the grenadiers royaux, and three regiments of dragoons.

The regiments of the grenadiers royaux who did not fight in Germany were cantoned on the coasts of France and the regiment of Chabrillant was sent to Minorca.

Additional Information
The grenadiers, considered as the elite of the infantry, were always chosen for their robustness and height. They were differentiated from the other infantrymen by wearing moustaches and receiving a larger salary. They were always brought together for a month each year at a military training ground, where their equipment was kept, for military exercises. The intendant carried out a review of the troops and their equipment. In 1765 the 11 regiments of the grenadiers royaux took the name of the province where they were raised and no longer took the name of their colonel.
The uniform of the grenadiers royaux (controlled by the ordonnance of 25th November 1746 - Funcken page 65, illustration 19) resembled that of the French line infantry: a coat of grey-white with buttons of copper or tin, vest and trousers in grey-white cloth, black gaiters for parade or white for ordinary service, epaulettes. Headgear was a black tricorn edged in silver. The grenadiers de France wore a blue coat with red turnbacks and a silver epaulette; their headgear was a fur cap decorated with a copper plate (Funcken page 63, illustration 39).

Flags:The Grenadiers de France had a white cross with the crowned arms of France in the center. Two quarters had a gold fleur de lis on a dark background, the other two quarters had flaming grenades on a light blue background (Funcken page 64, illustration 65) . The standard of the grenadiers royaux (Funcken page 65 illustration 65) had a white cross covered in gold fleur de lis, the crowned arms of France in the center, and four blue quarters.

Regiments of the Grenadier Royaux
The information that follows conforms to a general format: each regiment is headed by its original name, followed by its name changes. A list of locations or battles for each regiment follows (French spellings are mostly used). All of these regiments were raised in 1745 and disbanded in December 1762. Note that, as normal, not all the information is consistent from source to source!

d'Espagnac lde Bergeret March 1750, de Narbonne Feb 1759
Flandre, Audenarde, Termonde, Ath, Bruxelles, Anvers, Rocoux 1746; Laufeldt - 1747; Maastricht - 1748; Germany - 1757 (in addition see main text).
de Bruslard [d'Aulan, February 1759; de Lespinasse 1760]
Flandre - 1745-48; coasts of Aunis & Saintonge 1756-62.
de Modene [Le Camus 1761]
Alpes. Acqui, Serraville, Tortone, Asti, Casal. Plaisance, Edone - 1746; Provence, Col de l'Assiette 1747; Germany - 1757; Hastenbeck, Hanover, Crefeld - 1758; Minden- 1759; Corbach, Warburg - 1760.
de Coincy [de Cambis 1761]
Flandre, Mons, Charleroi, Namur, Rocoux - 1746; Laufeldt, Bergen-op-Zoom - 1747; Alpes - 1748; On the coasts - 1756-62.
de Bautteville [de Chatillon March 1747, de Longaunay 1759]
Flandre, Anvers, Rocoux - 1746; Flandre (maritime), Laufeldt 1747; Maastrict - 1748; On the coasts - 1756-60; Germany - 1760.
de Latour [ de Chantilly March 1746]
Flandre, Anvers, Namur, Rocoux- 1746; Anvers, Bergen-op-Zoom -1747; Maastrict- 1748; Germany - 1757; Hastenbeck, Hanover, Crefeld - 1758; Minden 1759; Corbach, Warburg - 1760; Vellinghausen - 1761.
de Valfonds [de Prugues May 1747, d'Ally May 1757]
Flandre, Fontenoy, Tournai, Audenarde, Termonde, Ath - 1745; Bruxelles - 1746; Flandre 1746-48; On the coasts 1757-60; Germany - 1761 -62.
d'Aulan [ Le Camus February 1759, de Puysegur 1761]
Flandre, Laufeldt - 1747; Maastrict - 1748; coast of Aunis 1756-62. de
Chabrillant - defense of the coasts during both wars.
de Solar - defense of the coasts during both wars.
de Longaunay [La Tresne, March 1746]
Flandre, Bruxelles 1746; Anvers, Namur, Rocoux, Laufeldt, Bergen-op-7,oom - 1747; Maastricht - 1748; On the coasts 1756-60; Germany, Vellinghausen 1761.

French Deployment of Grenadiers
The grenadiers of the grenadiers royaux and the grenadiers de France were normally brigaded together and used as a battlefield reserve - either to deliver the final blow or to cover a withdrawal. In this role they were frequently associated with the carabiniers and gendarmes who were also in the reserve. The grenadier companies from the normal line regiments were also brigaded on occaision to form elite units, these could be used as normal close order troops but, in Europe at least, seem to have been used more frequently as skirmishers to cover the army's deployment or to harass the enemy from difficult terrain (battle maps of Sandershausen and descriptions of Hastenbeck et al suggest this).

A further indication of this use of the grenadiers is that preceding the war, training camps experimented with light infantry tactics using the regimental grenadiers. De Broglie also raised companies of chasseurs from the line infantry who could be detached to serve with the grenadiers in a skirmishing role. Some sources say that the grenadiers a cheval were raised from the infantry grenadiers and not the cavalry. Kennet states that the grenadier royaux drew recruits from the grenadier companies of line regiments and that the grenadiers de France, in turn, drew recruits from the grenadiers royaux.

List of Sources
S. Bourdin: Letter to the Author January 9, 1996.
Christopher Duffy: The Military Experience in the Age of Reason Routledge & Keegan Paul, 1987.
L. & F. Funcken: L'Uniforme et les Armes des Soldats de la Guerre en Dentelle. Volume I, Caterman, Paris 1987.
J. Gebelin: Histoire des Milices Provinciales (1688-1791) Le Tirage au Sort Sous L'Ancien Regime; Hachette, Paris 1882.
Lee Kennen: The French Armies in the Seven Years War Duke University Press 1967.
The Nafziger Collection. Orders of Battle 1600-1945: The Seven Years War Section.
Brent Nosworthy: The Anatomy of Victory - Battle Tactics 1689-1763. Hippocrene Books 1992.
R.D. Pengel & G.R. Hurt: French Infantry Regiments 1740-1762 Imperial Press 1993.
J.L. Sanchez Martin: The Battle Maps of the SYW Volume II The Seven Years War Study Group, 1992.
General Susane: Histoire de l'Infantrie Francaise, Volume II Paris 1876"