The regiment was raised in 1610 by comte de Beaumont Saint-Vallier when Henri IV made his great preparations to fight the Habsburg. Until 1670, it ranked 6th among the Petits Vieux French regiments. During this year it ceded its rank to Royal Infanterie. In 1671 the regiment took the name of Chateauneuf. In 1673, the regiment took the name of the province of Artois when the regiment previously wearing this name received the privilege of becoming a royal regiment under the name of La Couronne Infanterie. The new Artois Regiment kept this name until the French Revolution.
This regiment counted two battalions and had prévôté (provostship).
During the War of the Polish Succession, the regiment served on the Rhine from 1733 to 1735.
During the War of the Austrian Succession, the regiment initially served in Munster on the Lower Rhine in 1741. In 1742, it was part of the French army who invaded Bohemia. In 1743, it was at Donauwörth in Bavaria. Then it served in Flanders from 1744 to 1748. The regiment fought at Pfaffenhofen, Germany, and Ventimille, Italy.
During the Seven Years' War, the regiment ranked 31st and was commanded by 1) from August 7 1747 Athanase Louis Marie de Loménie, comte de Brienne 2) from December 1 1762 to 1778 the marquis de Sarans.
The two battalions of this regiment operated in different theatres of operation for most of the Seven Years' War. The 1st Battalion remained in Europe whilst the 2nd was sent to Canada.